Methods to increase equity, diversity, and inclusion in Canadian urology programs


  • Levi Godard University of British Columbia
  • Julie Wong University of British Columbia
  • Christopher Nguan University of British Columbia



minority groups, racial groups, women, urology, internship and residency, inclusion, equity, diversion, gender


INTRODUCTION: Women and ethnic minorities are underrepresented at all levels of training and practice in urology residency programs. Equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) is a growing field of interest in medical research and business literature, especially regarding recruitment. The objective of this review was to evaluate evidence-based strategies to increase EDI to improve urology residency recruitment.

METHODS: A review was conducted using Ovid Medline to identify publications reporting strategies to increase women and underrepresented minorities (URM) in healthcare fields. An evaluation of business models was incorporated. Identified strategies were sorted and ranked based on how many papers reported an increased proportion of women or URM in their program following implementation.

RESULTS: We assessed 234 publications from 1972–2022. Eleven underwent full review. Six additional pieces of business literature were reviewed and incorporated. The following methods were most often identified to increase diversity: mentorship and holistic application review (six publications), as well as funded internship programs and diverse selection committees (four publications). Diversity statements and application blinding were highlighted by multiple business sources but were each only reviewed in one medical publication.

CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations identified include mentorship, holistic application review by diverse selection committees with bias training, and development of funded internship programs. Standardized questions and rubrics were also well-studied. Business strategies, such as publishing diversity statements and application blinding, are less studied in medical education literature. This study is unique in its inclusion of both medical and business literature and highlights concrete strategies for urology residency programs to increase EDI during recruitment.


Download data is not yet available.



How to Cite

Godard, L., Wong, J. ., & Nguan, C. . (2023). Methods to increase equity, diversity, and inclusion in Canadian urology programs. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 17(8), 255–62.



Original Research