Simulation-based prostate enucleation training: Initial experience using 3D-printed organ phantoms


  • Claudia Deyirmendjian Université de Montréal
  • David-Dan Nguyen Division of Urology, University of Toronto
  • Sero Andonian
  • Mélanie Aubé-Peterkin
  • Julien Letendre
  • Dean Elterman
  • Kevin C. Zorn
  • Bilal Chughtai
  • Arkadiusz Miernik
  • Andreas J. Gross
  • Naeem Bhojani



Surgical training, Anatomic endoscopic enucleation of the prostate, Simulator


Introduction: Anatomical endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (AEEP) is an effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); however, there is controversy regarding the difficulty of learning such a technique. Simulation-based training can mimic real-life surgeries and help surgeons develop skills they can transfer to the operating room, thereby improving patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a novel organ phantom for use in AEEP simulation training.

Methods: Participants performed AEEP on organ phantom simulators during a Masterclass using one of three energy modalities: holmium:YAG laser, thulium fiber laser, or bipolar energy. The organ phantom is composed of hydrogels and uses 3D molds to recreate prostatic tissue. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing content validity, face validity, feasibility, and acceptability of using the prostate organ phantom.

Results: The novice group consisted of 13 urologists. The median number of AEEP previously performed was 0 (interquartile range [IQR] 0–2). Two experts in AEEP (surgeons having performed over 100 AEEP interventions) also participated. All participants agreed or strongly agreed that there is a role for simulators in AEEP training. Participants positively rated the overall operative experience (7.3/10). Morcellation (4.7/10) and hemostasis (3.1/10) were deemed the least realistic steps. All participants considered it feasible to incorporate this organ phantom into training programs and 92.9% agreed that it teaches skills transferrable to the operating room.

Conclusions: This study has established content and face validity for AEEP with three different energy sources for an organ phantom. Participants considered its use both feasible and appropriate for AEEP training purposes.


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How to Cite

Deyirmendjian, C., Nguyen, D.-D., Andonian, S., Aubé-Peterkin, M., Letendre, J., Elterman, D., Zorn, K., Chughtai, B., Miernik, A., Gross, A., & Bhojani, N. (2022). Simulation-based prostate enucleation training: Initial experience using 3D-printed organ phantoms. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 16(12), 409–16.



Original Research