The relationship of human papillomavirus positivity with tumor characteristics in an Irish penile cancer population
Keywords:Squamous cell carcinoma, Penile cancer, Human papilloma virus, p16INK4a
Introduction: Penile cancer is a rare malignancy, with a European-wide annual incidence rate of 1/100 000 males. Approximately one-third of cases are attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. p16INK4a is a recognized surrogate marker for HPV infection in penile cancer. University Hospital Waterford (UHW) is the national referral center for penile cancer in Ireland. We report the prevalence of HPV infection and histological characteristics of an Irish penile cancer cohort using p16INK4a as a surrogate marker.
Methods: Patients who attended UHW for penile cancer surgery between June 2015 and November 2020 were entered into a prospectively maintained database. Clinical, histopathological, and outcome data were collected.
Results: Over the study period, 70 patients with a histological diagnosis of penile squamous cell carcinoma had staining for p16INK4a, of whom 64% were positive. p16INK4a-positive patients were significantly younger at diagnosis, with a mean age of 61±15 years compared to 68±12 (p <0.05). Of note, 97% of tumors with high-risk histology were p16INK4a-positive (p<0.001). p16INK4a positivity was more prevalent among higher-grade tumors (p<0.02). Interestingly, p16INK4a status was not associated with recurrence-free or overall survival.
Conclusions: Our data is representative of the Irish landscape in penile cancer over the last five years. Using p16INK4a staining, we demonstrate a high rate of HPV prevalence in penile cancer cases in our patient cohort, which is associated with prognostically worse tumor subtypes. This would suggest that HPV vaccination of adolescent boys is a useful public health intervention in preventing penile cancer in the Irish male population.
How to Cite
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.