Single-institution, retrospective review of elective and emergency embolization of renal angiomyolipoma
Keywords:Renal, kidney, angiomyolipoma, AML, embolisation, embolization, SAE
Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the size reduction and complications after transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs).
Methods: Cases from a single tertiary center were analyzed retrospectively. A blinded radiologist provided measurements of AMLs using a combination of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Electronic clinical notes, radiographic imaging, and laboratory data were reviewed.
Results: Twenty-one embolization procedures from 2002–2019 were analyzed. Four cases were emergency, the remainder elective. The average followup time after intervention was 42 months. Techniques included ethanol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Gelfoam, Embospheres®, Histacryl®, and coils. The median diameter size of AMLs was 8.6 cm pre-procedure and 6.0 cm post-procedure. The median volume of AMLs was 200 cc pre-procedure and 67 cc post-procedure, with a median reduction in volume of 55%. One case (4.8%) had a re-embolization and three cases (14.3%) proceeded with surgical management of the AML. No cases re-presented with bleeding. Post-embolization syndrome is common. Renal arterial dissection and renal abscess are infrequent complications (9% and 4.5%, respectively). There was no treatment-based mortality.
Conclusions: Embolization for renal AMLs is an established, safe, and effective method of treatment and our series further supports that. Determining when to intervene and how long to follow up patients is an issue that has not been well-described; more research needs to be done in this area.
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