Psychological morbidity associated with prostate cancer: Rates and predictors of depression in the RADICAL PC study
Introduction: Across all cancer sites and stages, prostate cancer has one of the greatest median five-year survival rates, highlighting the important focus on survivorship issues following diagnosis and treatment. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of depression in a large, multicenter, contemporary, prospectively collected sample of men with prostate cancer.
Methods: Data from the current study were drawn from the baseline visit of men enrolled in the RADICAL PC study. Men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer or patients initiating androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer for the first time were recruited. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). To evaluate factors associated with depression, a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed, including biological, psychological, and social predictor variables.
Results: Data from 2445 patients were analyzed. Of these, 201 (8.2%) endorsed clinically significant depression. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.60 per 10-year decrease), being a current smoker (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.66–4.58), former alcohol use (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.33–5.20), poorer performance status (OR 5.01, 95% CI 3.49–7.20), having a pre-existing clinical diagnosis of depression or anxiety (OR 3.64, 95% CI 2.42–5.48), and having high-risk prostate cancer (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.05–2.12) all conferred independent risk for depression.
Conclusions: Clinically significant depression is common in men with prostate cancer. Depression risk is associated with a host of biopsychosocial variables. Clinicians should be vigilant to screen for depression in those patients with poor social determinants of health, concomitant disability, and advanced disease.
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.