Longitudinal experience with Studer neobladders: Outcomes and complications
Introduction: This study aims to assess the longer-term functional, anatomical, and metabolic outcomes of patients who underwent Studer neobladder (SNB) urinary diversion.
Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent SNB at a single center from 1995–2017 (n=116) was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, pathological data, and longer-term functional, anatomical, and metabolic outcomes were collected from hospital records. The primary outcome was voiding function of patients at most recent followup. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications, renal function, nephrolithiasis, infections, and metabolic outcomes.
Results: Excluding those with incomplete followup data, 72 patients with minimum followup of one year were included for analysis. Median followup was 70±11 months, with 52.8% of patients having ≥5 years of followup. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) was used by 22.2% of patient at most recent followup, which was mostly necessitated by bladder overdistension, deteriorating renal function, or recurrent urosepsis despite timed voiding. Patients experienced more daytime and nighttime urinary incontinence in the early postoperative setting that improved over time. Generally, renal function declined over time; poorer long-term renal function was predicted by hydronephrosis within one year (p=0.002).
Conclusions: Longer-term followup of SNB reveals significant but manageable complications. Gradual decline in renal function was common. Strict adherence to bladder emptying protocols (e.g., timed voiding or CIC) may reduce incidence of renal deterioration, metabolic disorders, and urinary dysfunction. Early onset (<1 year) of hydronephrosis may indicate a need for intervention to preserve long-term renal function.
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