Controversies in the management of clinical stage 1 testis cancer
Keywords:surveillance; adjuvant; relapse; testis cancer; stage 1
In November 2018, The Canadian Testis Cancer Workshop was convened. The two-day workshop involved urologists, medical and radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, physician’s assistants, residents and fellows, nurses, patients, and patient advocacy groups. One of the goals of the workshop was to discuss the challenging areas of testis cancer care where guidelines may not be specific. The objective was to distill, through discussion around cases, expert approach to working through these challenges. Herein, we present a summary of discussion from the workshop around controversies in the management of clinical stage 1 (CS1) disease. CS1 represents organ-confined, non-metastatic testis cancer that represents approximately 70–80% of men at presentation. Regardless of management, CS1 has an excellent prognosis. However, without adjuvant treatment, approximately 30% of CS1 non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) and 15% of CS1 seminoma relapse. The workshop reviewed that while surveillance has become the standard for most patients with CS1 disease, there remains debate in the management of patients at high risk of relapse. The controversy in the management of CS1 testis cancer surrounds the optimal balance between the morbidity of overtreatment and the identification of patients who may derive most benefit from adjuvant treatment. The challenge lies in a shared decision process, where discussion of options extends beyond the simple risk of relapse to include the long-term toxicities of adjuvant treatments and the favorable cancer-specific survival.
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