Development of a 3D-printed testicular cancer model for testicular examination education
Introduction: Testicular cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in young males. Testicular examination is a noninvasive and inexpensive means of detecting testicular cancer at an early stage. In this project, a set of 3D-printed models was developed to facilitate teaching testicular examination and improving understanding of testicular malignancies among patients and medical learners.
Methods: Five scrotum models were designed: a control model with healthy testes, and four models containing a healthy testicle and a testicle with an endophytic mass of varying size. The anatomy, texture, and composition of the 3D-printed models were refined using an iterative process between the design team and urologists. The completed models were assessed by six urologists, two urology nurse practitioners, and 32 medical learners. Participants were asked to inspect and palpate each model, and to provide feedback using a five-point Likert scale.
Results: Clinicians reported that the models enabled accurate simulation of a testicular examination involving both healthy and pathologic testes (x̅=4.3±1.0). They agreed that the models would be useful teaching tools for both medical learners (x̅=4.8±0.5) and patients (x̅=4.8±0.7). Following an educational session with the models, medical learners reported improvements in confidence and skill in performing a testicular examination.
Conclusions: 3D-printed models can effectively simulate palpation of both healthy and pathologic testes. The developed models have the potential to be a useful adjunct in teaching testicular examination and in demonstrating abnormal findings that require further investigation.
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.