Male circumcision and prostate cancer: A geographical analysis, meta-analysis, and cost analysis
Introduction: Attempts to find an association between male circumcision and prostate cancer risk have produced inconsistent results.
Methods: Age-standardized prostate cancer incidence, life-expectancy, geographical region, and circumcision prevalence from 188 countries were compared using linear regression analysis. Following a systematic literature review, a meta-analysis was performed on studies meeting inclusion criteria with evaluations of between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. A cost analysis (discounted at 3% and 5% per annum) was performed using the meta-analysis’s summary effect and upper confidence interval.
Results: Univariate analysis revealed a trend for a positive association between country-level age-standardized prostate cancer incidence (per 100 000 person-years) and circumcision prevalence (β=0.0887; 95% confidence interval [CI)]-0.0560, +0.233), while multivariate analysis found a significant positive association (β=0.215; 95% CI 0.114, 0.316). Twelve studies were included in meta-analysis. The random-effects summary odds ratio of the risk of being genitally intact was 1.10 (95% CI 0.96, 1.26, between-study heterogeneity
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