Survival outcomes for patients with surgically induced end-stage renal disease
Introduction: While medically induced end-stage renal disease (m-ESRD) has been well-studied, outcomes in patients with surgically induced ESRD (s-ESRD) are unknown. We sought to quantitatively compare the non-oncological outcomes for s-ESRD and m-ESRD in a large, population-based cohort.
Methods: Medicare patients >65 years old initiating hemodialysis were identified using the U.S. Renal Data System database (2000‒2012). Metastatic cancer, prior transplant history, and nephrectomy for polycystic kidney disease were exclusion criteria. Patients were classified as having s-ESRD or m-ESRD based on hospital and physician claims for nephrectomy within a year preceding the onset of maintenance hemodialysis. Outcomes included non-cancer mortality (NCM), overall survival (OS), cardiovascular event (CVE), and renal transplantation. Time-to-event analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence curves, and multivariable Cox and Fine-and-Grey regression models.
Results: The cohort included 312 612 patients, of whom 1648 (0.53%) had s-ESRD. Compared to m-ESRD patients, s-ESRD patients had a significantly lower five-year cumulative incidence of NCM (68% vs. 80%; p<0.001) and CVE (62% vs. 68%; p<0.001), with a correspondingly higher probability of OS (22% vs. 17%; p<0.001) and rate of renal transplantation (3.6% vs. 2.0%; p<0.001). On multivariable analyses, s-ESRD remained associated with lower risks of NCM (p<0.001) and CVE (p<0.001), improved OS (p<0.001), and higher chance of renal transplantation (p<0.001).
Conclusions: While outcomes for s-ESRD appear more favorable than m-ESRD, s-ESRD is still associated with a substantial risk of NCM and CVE, and a low incidence of renal transplantation in Medicare patients >65 years old. These non-oncological outcomes are worth considering in patients potentially facing postoperative ESRD.
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