Trends and disparities in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma
Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to radical or partial cystectomy is considered the standard of care for eligible patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. Despite guideline recommendations, adoption of NAC has historically been low, although prior studies have suggested that use is increasing. In this contemporary study, we examine trends in the use of NAC and explore factors associated with its receipt.
Methods: We identified patients in the National Cancer Database who underwent radical or partial cystectomy for cT2-cT4N0M0 urothelial carcinoma from 2006–2014. The proportion of patients receiving NAC during each year was examined. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with the receipt of NAC.
Results: A total of 18 188 patients were identified who underwent radical or partial cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Overall, 3940 (21.7%) received NAC. We noted a significant increase in the use of NAC over time, from 9.7% in 2006 to 32.2% in 2014. Factors associated with lower use of NAC include older age, higher comorbidity score, lower cT stage, lower hospital radical cystectomy volume, treatment at a non-academic facility, lower patient income, and receipt of partial cystectomy (all p<0.001). Interestingly, neither sex nor race were associated with receipt of NAC.
Conclusions: Use of NAC has increased significantly over time to a modest rate of 32%. However, disparities still exist in the receipt of NAC, and future efforts aimed at mitigating these disparities are warranted.
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