Contemporary perceptions of human papillomavirus and penile cancer: Perspectives from a national survey
Keywords:HPV, penile cancer, survey
Introduction: We aimed to assess the contemporary knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its association with penile cancer in a nationwide cohort from the U.S.
Methods: We used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a cross-sectional telephone survey performed in the U.S. initiated by the National Cancer Institute. The most recent iteration, HINTS 4 Cycle 4, was conducted in mail format between August 19 and November 17, 2014. Primary endpoints included knowledge of HPV and its causal relationship to penile cancer. Baseline characteristics included sex, age, education, race and ethnicity, income, residency, personal or family history of cancer, health insurance status, and internet use. Multivariable logistic regression assessed predictors of HPV and penile cancer knowledge.
Results: An unweighted sample of 3376 respondents was extracted from the HINTS 4, Cycle 4. Whereas 64.4% of respondents had heard of HPV, only 29.5% of these were aware that it could cause penile cancer. Men were significantly less likely to have heard of HPV than women (odds ratio [OR] 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24–0.43). Older age; African-American, Asian, and “other race”; being married; from a lower education bracket; having a personal cancer history; and those without internet access were significantly less likely to have heard of HPV. None of our examined variables were independent predictors for the knowledge of the association of penile cancer and HPV.
Conclusions: Our analysis of a large, nationally representative survey demonstrates that the majority of the American public is familiar with HPV, but lack a meaningful understanding between this virus and penile cancer. Primary care providers and specialists should be encouraged to intensify counselling about this significant association as a primary preventive measure of this potentially fatal disease.
How to Cite
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.