Biofeedback as single first-line treatment for non-neuropathic dysfunctional voiding in children with diurnal enuresis
Introduction: Non-neurogenic dysfunctional voiding (NDV) accounts for a significant portion of pediatric urology outpatient clinic visits. Biofeedback (BF) is a promising, non-invasive modality for treating children with DV and daytime wetting. Our objective was to investigate BF’s efficacy as a single first-line treatment for children with NDV and diurnal enuresis.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with a total of 61 consecutive patient records from January 2009 to March 2016. All children with NDV who had BF as first-line treatment were included. Full urological histories, physical examinations, dysfunctional voiding symptom score (DVSS), urine analysis, ultrasound (US), and uroflowmetry (UFM), and electromyogram (EMG) were performed and recorded for all patients before and after finishing the last BF cycle. The patient’s satisfaction scale was also obtained.
Results: The mean age was 10±2.6 years. Most patients (80.3%) were females. The presenting symptoms were diurnal enuresis, urinary tract infections, and voiding discomfort in 52 (85.2%), 16 (26.2%), and 38 (62.3%) patients, respectively. Six months after the last BF cycle, there was a statistically significant objective improvement in US and UFM+EMG findings, with the disappearance of EMG signals in 40 of 61 (65.5%) patients. There was also a significant subjective symptomatic improvement, as the mean DVSS had decreased from 14 to 7.9 (p=0.003). Forty-seven patients (77%) were satisfied, while only eight (13.1%) were not.
Conclusions: BF is considered a potentially effective, single firstline treatment modality for children with DV and diurnal enuresis. Long-term outcome assessments are needed to assess the children’s compliance and symptom recurrence.
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