Classification tree for the prediction of malignant disease and the prediction of non-diagnostic biopsies in patients with small renal masses
Introduction: Preoperative prediction of benign vs. malignant small renal masses (SRMs) remains a challenge. This study: 1) validates our previously published classification tree (CT) with an external cohort; 2) creates a new CT with the combined cohort; and 3) evaluates the RENAL and PADUA scoring systems for prediction of malignancy.
Methods: This study includes a total of 818 patients with renal masses; 395 underwent surgical resection and 423 underwent biopsy. A CT to predict benign disease was developed using patient and tumour characteristics from the 709 eligible participants. Our CT is based on four parameters: tumour volume, symptoms, gender, and symptomatology. CART modelling was also used to determine if RENAL and PADUA scoring could predict malignancy.
Results: When externally validated with the surgical cohort, the predictive accuracy of the old CT dropped. However, by combining the cohorts and creating a new CT, the predictive accuracy increased from 74% to 87% (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.89). RENAL and PADUA score alone were not predictive of malignancy. One limitation was the lack of available histological data from the biopsy series.
Conclusions: The validated old CT and new combined-cohort CT have a predictive value greater than currently published nomograms and single-biopsy cohorts. Overall, RENAL and PADUA scores were not able to predict malignancy.
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