Recurrence and upstaging rates of T1 high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder on repeat resection in a Canadian, resource-limited, healthcare system
Introduction: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is the most expensive malignancy to treat. Current Canadian guidelines recommend repeat transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) within six weeks after initial resection of T1 high-grade (T1HG) urothelial carcinoma, prior to initiation of intravesical bacillus Calmette- Guerin treatment. This is a burden on operating room usage and adds further cost and risk of complications. Internationally, major cancer centres report significant rates of recurrence and upstaging on repeat resection, however, minimal Canadian data is available. We aimed to determine the rate of recurrence and upstaging in a resource-limited, Canadian healthcare system.
Methods: A retrospective review of patients receiving TURBT between November 2009 and November 2014 was performed. Patients were included if they had all three of the following: a pathological diagnosis of T1HG, adequate muscularis propria present in the specimen, and a repeat resection.
Results: We reviewed 3166 patients who underwent TURBT and found 173 to meet our inclusion criteria. The overall recurrence and upstaging rates were 57.2% and 9.2%, respectively. Tumour recurrence and upstaging occurred more often in patients who had repeat resection after 12‒24 weeks compared to those patients whose repeat resection occurred within 12 weeks.
Conclusions: Although recurrence rates are similar, we have found upstaging rates to be three- to four-fold lower than those previously reported. Despite this, one in 10 patients will be upstaged, justifying use of this resource within our healthcare system. Finally, timely repeat resection, within 12 weeks appears to be associated with preventing disease progression.
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