Treatment options in advanced renal cell carcinoma after first-line treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors

Naveen S. Basappa


Targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) was introduced a decade ago, and since then a number of therapeutic options have been developed. Vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapy is the widely accepted first-line option for mRCC. After progression, treatment in the second-line setting has typically been with either axitinib or everolimus. However, with the advent of several new agents demonstrating efficacy in the second-line setting, including nivolumab, cabozantinib, and the combination of lenvatinib and everolimus, the treatment paradigm has shifted toward these novel therapies with improved patient outcomes.

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