Epidemiology of prostate and kidney cancer in the Aboriginal population of Canada: A systematic review
Introduction: Prostate and kidney cancer rates in the Aboriginal population of Canada is a growing issue.
Methods: A systematic review of prostate and kidney cancer epidemiology in the Aboriginal population of Canada was performed with international comparison and evaluation of present epidemiological disparities. PubMed, Medline, and Embase (from January 1946 to June 2016), relevant government-published reports, and the websites of organizations contributing to prostate or kidney cancer guidelines were searched. We included studies that informed any of the three epidemiological questions this review is focused on answering.
Results: Two systematic reviews, two meta-analyses, five literature reviews, and 21 single-study papers were included. The incidence and mortality rates of kidney cancer were elevated among Canadian Aboriginals when compared to the provincial or national population and to several international regions. No studies reported data on survival. Prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates were lower in Aboriginals provincially, nationally, and internationally, with incidence and survival reaching statistical significance. Elevated rate of risk factors for kidney cancer was a significant finding among Canadian Aboriginals. Aboriginals were screened for prostate cancer less than the general Canadian population, a trend also observed in the U.S.
Conclusions: The elevated incidence and mortality of kidney cancer among Canadian Aboriginals is most likely attributable to the rise in lifestyle-based risk factors. Two correlations concerning prostate cancer are made. However, due to temporal and regional disparities in data, further investigation is required to elucidate these observations.
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