Prospective evaluation of anxiety, pain, and embarrassment associated with cystoscopy and urodynamic testing in clinical practice

Xavier Biardeau, Ornella Lam, Van Ba, Lysanne Campeau, Jacques Corcos


Introduction: We sought to prospectively assess anxiety, pain, and embarrassment associated with diagnostic cystoscopy and multichannel urodynamic study (UDS).

Methods: All consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy or UDS in our department over a period of nine months were asked to participate. Two anonymous auto-administered questionnaires were specifically designed to collect basic epidemiological data, document medical history, and assess the quality of information provided, along with prevalence and level (0‒10 numerical visual analog rating scale) of anxiety, pain, and embarrassment experienced before and/or during the procedures. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify underlying factors that could have influenced patients’ experience and ascertain potential correlations between anxiety, pain, and embarrassment.

Results: 101 and 185 patients were respectively evaluated immediately after cystoscopy and UDS. Multivariate analysis repeatedly showed statistical correlations between anxiety, pain, and embarrassment, with regard to prevalence and level of intensity in both cystoscopy and UDS populations. Males and young patients were more likely to present anxiety, pain, or embarrassment during cystoscopy and UDS. Interestingly, patients who reported having received complete information before cystoscopy were significantly more likely to experience anxiety (62.6% vs. 20.0%; p=0.009).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the major impact of gender and age on patients’ experience. Interestingly, information provided before cystoscopy was reported to have a negative impact on patients’ perception of anxiety; this could be partly prevented by optimizing the way information is provided to patients.

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