Ureteroscopy with conscious sedation for distal ureteric calculi: 10-year experience


  • Tadeusz J. Kroczak University of Manitoba, Section of Urology, Winnipeg, Manitoba
  • Kamaljot Singh Kaler University of California Irvine, Department of Urology, Irvine, California
  • Premal Patel University of Manitoba, Section of Urology, Winnipeg, Manitoba
  • Turki Al-Essawi Saad Specialist Hospital, Al-Khobar




Introduction: Distal ureteroscopy for stone extraction is a common procedure that is generally performed with spinal or general anesthesia. We retrospectively reviewed all distal ureteroscopy performed for ureteric stone extraction with conscious sedation at our institution over a 10-year period to determine its efficacy and safety.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all distal ureteroscopy performed for calculus removal from 2004 to 2014. Patient characteristics, analgesic requirement, tolerability, procedure time, stone size and composition, method of stone extraction, success rate, and complications were collected.

Results: Between 2004 and 2014, 314 procedures were performed. Mean age was 53.74 years, with 160 males and 154 females. A success rate of 97% and 10 (3.2%) complications were reported. Mean analgesic requirement was 189 μg of fentanyl (range: 50‒400) and 2.79 mg of midazolam (range: 0‒8). A total of 263 patients (83.7%) tolerated the procedure well, with only seven (2.2%) having poor tolerability. When comparing females to males, females were found to require less fentanyl (p=0.0001) and midazolam (p=0.0001). When calculi >5 mm were compared to those <5 mm, there was no statistically significant difference in success rate, procedure time, analgesic requirement, tolerability, or complications.

Conclusion: Distal ureteroscopy with conscious sedation is safe and efficacious. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating stones >5 mm can be safely and effectively treated with conscious sedation during this procedure. The context of our findings must be understood within the limitations of our retrospective analysis.


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How to Cite

Kroczak, T. J., Kaler, K. S., Patel, P., & Al-Essawi, T. (2016). Ureteroscopy with conscious sedation for distal ureteric calculi: 10-year experience. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 10(1-2), E12–6. https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.3302



Original Research