Colonic perforation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: An 18-year experience
Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the treatment of choice for large, extracorporeal lithotripsy failure stones and those in the inferior calyx. Despite the development of new techniques and the increasing experience in recent decades, complications may still occur. Colonic perforation is one of the most dangerous and rare complications of PCNL, which may lead to peritonitis and sepsis. We present our 18-year experience on the diagnosis and management of colonic perforation during PCNL.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 5260 PCNL procedures performed between May 1995 and August 2013. Preoperative and operative factors, such as age, sex, history of previous ipsilateral stone intervention, stone side, stone location, site of skin puncture and punctured calyx, were reviewed in patients with colonic injury.
Results: Colonic perforation was found in 11 patients (5 males and 6 females) and the mean age was 40.4 ± 22.2 years (range: 4 to 71). All injuries were retroperitoneal. The left side was affected in 5 patients and the right side was injured in 6 cases. Conservative management was the treatment planned for all patients. It included withdrawal of the nephrostomy tube outside the kidney to the colon as a percutaneous colostomy, insertion of a double-J ureteral stent, intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, bowel rest and total parenteral nutrition. Under this conservative management, complete healing of the colon was achieved in all patients.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis and conservative management of colonic perforation can minimize patient morbidity and mortality and result in excellent healing of the fistulous tract without any serious complications.
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