Management of adult tuberous sclerosis complex-related angiomyolipoma: A single-center experience
Keywords:Tuberous sclerosis; Everolimus; Angiomyolipoma; Renal cell carcinoma
Introduction: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, multisystem, genetic disease. A significant cause of TSC-related morbidity is potential bleeding from renal angiomyolipoma (AML). To pre-emptively decrease AML bleeding, mTOR inhibitors can be used; however, thresholds for initiating and maintaining everolimus therapy remain uncertain. Recent literature suggests not triggering active treatment of AMLs based on size thresholds alone. We evaluated the appropriateness of initiating everolimus therapy in asymptomatic patients after considering AML size, rate of growth, and other factors.
Methods: Diagnostic criteria developed by the 2012 International TSC Consensus Group and presence of AML were used as inclusion criteria. Medical and imaging reports of 11/20 TSC patients from a single center were reviewed.
Results: Mean age was 40.55 (±16.27) and 11 patients were female. Eight asymptomatic patients at high risk for complications underwent everolimus therapy, of which seven (88%) demonstrated decreased AML size, but multiple side effects were reported. Four high-risk asymptomatic patients did not undergo therapy due to side effect concerns, while four low-risk asymptomatic patients had stable AMLs under active surveillance. Four patients had reduced AMLs through local therapy.
Conclusions: Everolimus treatment was effective for managing AML size in most high-risk, asymptomatic patients with tolerable side effects. AML size can remain relatively stable for asymptomatic, low-risk patients despite not receiving intervention(s). Patients with TSC-related AML can be safely managed with mTOR inhibitors like everolimus with shared decision-making, including factors such as bleeding risk, AML growth rate, and number and absolute size of AMLs.
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