A systematic review and meta-analysis of unplanned hospital visits and re-admissions following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer
Keywords:readmission, radical prostatectomy, emergency room visit, unplanned visits, quality improvement
Introduction: Unplanned visits (UPV) — re-admissions and emergency room (ER) visits — are markers of healthcare system quality. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a commonly performed cancer procedure, where variation in UPV represents a gap in care for prostate cancer patients. Here, we systematically synthesize the rates, reasons, predictors, and interventions for UPV after RP to inform evidence-based quality improvement (QI) initiatives.
Methods: A systematic review was performed for studies from 2000–2020 using keywords: “re-admission,” “emergency room/ department,” “unplanned visit,” and “prostatectomy.” Studies that focused on UPV following RP and that reported rates, reasons, predictors, or interventions, were included. Data was extracted via a standardized form. Meta-analysis was completed.
Results: Sixty studies, with 406 107 RP patients, were eligible; 16 028 UPV events (approximately 5%) were analyzed from 317 050 RP patients. UPV rates after RP varied between studies (ER visit range 6–24%; re-admissions range 0–56%). The 30-day and 90-day ER visit rates were 12% and 14%, respectively; the 30-day and 90-day re-admission rates were 4% and 9%, respectively. A total of 55% of all re-admissions after RP are directly due to postoperative genitourinary (GU)-related complications, such as strictures, obstructions, fistula, bladder-related, incontinence, urine leak, renal problems, and other unspecified urinary complications. The next most common re-admission reasons were anastomosis-related, infection-related, cardiovascular/pulmonary events, and wound-related issues. Thirty-four percent of all ER visits after RP are directly due to urine-related issues, such as retention, urinoma, obstruction, leak, and catheter problems. The next most common ER visit reasons were abdominal/ gastrointestinal issues, infection-related, venous thromboembolic events, and wound-related issues. Predictors for increased re-admission included: open RP, lymph node dissection, Charlson comorbidity index ≥2, low surgeon/hospital case volume, and socioeconomic determinants of health. Of the 10 interventions evaluated, a 3.4% average reduction in UPV rate was observed, highlighting an approximate two-fold decrease. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant benefit of interventions over controls, with odds ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.46–0.84). Interventions that used multidisciplinary, nurse-centered, programs, with patient self-care/ empowerment were more beneficial than algorithmic patient care pathways and preoperative patient education.
Conclusions: Twenty years of international, retrospective experience suggests UPV after RP are often related to GU complications and infection- or wound-related factors. QI interventions to reduce UPV should target these factors. While many re-admissions after RP appear to be unavoidable, ER visits have more opportunity for volume reduction by QI. The interventions evaluated herein have the potential to reduce UPV after RP.
How to Cite
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.