The first epidemiology study of urolithiasis in New Brunswick
Keywords:Urolithiasis, prevalence, age, sex, geographical factor
Introduction: Understanding the composition of a kidney stone is crucial in leading to proper treatment and preventing reoccurring urolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of urolithiasis in the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada.
Methods: A total of 3828 kidney stone analysis reports from October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2019, were reviewed from laboratory information systems. Among them, 3311 were identified as new cases. Stone compositions were analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Incident rates were compared using Chi-squared analysis of different age, sex, and regional health authority (RHA) zones.
Results: The prevalence of urolithiasis in NB was 147.8 per 100 000 person-years. Males had a significantly higher (X2=254, p<0.001) incident rate of 189 (95% confidence interval [CI] 182–198) than females (107 [95% CI 102–114]) per 100 000 person-years. Zone 1 had significantly higher (245 per 100 000 person-years, p<0.001) prevalence compared to other RHA zones. Age group over 65 years had the highest incidence rate of 253 per 100 00 person-years of all groups. The predominant kidney stone types in NB were calcium oxalate monohydrate (60.68%) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (11.58%). Those patients aged 0–18 years had a high percentage of struvite (4.32%) vs. the provincial average (2.19%) (p<0.001).
Conclusions: The prevalence of NB’s urolithiasis is slightly higher than that of Ontario. Since both zones 1.1 and 1.2 have significantly high prevalence and are situated in the Moncton area (combined zone 1), it may suggest that geographical factors play a role in the prevalence of urolithiasis in NB.
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