Incidence and predictors of occult preoperative deep vein thrombosis at radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma
Introduction: Patients undergoing radical cystectomy are at high perioperative risk for deep vein thrombosis due to age, malignancy, recent transurethral resection, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We, therefore, evaluated the incidence and predictors of occult preoperative deep vein thrombosis prior to radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma.
Methods: We prospectively screened 52 asymptomatic patients with urothelial carcinoma undergoing radical cystectomy at our institution with lower extremity ultrasound and D-dimer assay within two weeks prior to surgery. Patients with a prior history of deep vein thrombosis and those on systemic anticoagulation were excluded.
Results: We identified 4/52 patients (7.7%) with preoperative asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis prior to radical cystectomy. Median D-dimer for patients with and without preoperative deep vein thrombosis was 787 ng/ml(interquartile range [IQR] 365–1257) and 260 ng/ml(IQR 158–498), respectively. A D-dimer threshold of >250 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 50%, resulting in a negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 14.8% for preoperative deep vein thrombosis. Increasing the D-dimer threshold to >1000 ng/ml created a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 85%, resulting in a negative predictive value of 92% and positive predictive value of 33%. D-dimer values did not significantly vary with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or days since transurethral resection.
Conclusions: Approximately 8% of patients had an occult deep vein thrombosis prior to radical cystectomy. D-dimer can provide sensitive diagnostic utility for deep vein thrombosis in the pre-radical cystectomy setting and could help guide use of preoperative lower extremity ultrasound in this high-risk patient population.
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