Sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with testicular sperm aspiration in men with severe oligozoospermia and cryptozoospermia
Introduction: Several studies addressed the role of testicular sperm aspiration with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in azoospermic men, but few have included non-azoospermic men. The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) sperm retrieval rates and ICSI outcomes in men with severe oligozoospermia.
Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 88 consecutive, non-azoospermic, infertile men with idiopathic severe oligozoospermia who underwent TESA between January 2011 and January 2018. Patients were categorized into four groups according to sperm concentration: <5 and >1 million/ml (group 1), <1 and > 0.1 million/ml (group 2), <0.1 million/ml (group 3), and cryptozoospermia (group 4).
Results: Mean male age was 37±7 years and the mean female age was 33±4 years. Sperm was recovered successfully in 90% (79/88) of the men overall and in 100% (30/30) of the men in group 1, 97% (29/30) of the men in group 2, 88% (15/17) of the men in group 3, and 45% (5/11) of the men in group 4. Most (65%, 57/88) of the couples had an embryo transfer (ET). The overall clinical pregnancy rate per ET was 46% (26/57). The clinical pregnancy rates (per ET) were 43% (9/21) in group 1, 65% (13/20) in group 2, 36% (4/11) in group 3, and 0% (0/5) in group 4.
Conclusions: Our data indicate TESA allows for high sperm retrieval rates and acceptable ICSI pregnancy rates in men with severe oligozoospermia. However, in our experience, TESA sperm retrieval rates and ICSI outcomes are poor in cryptozoospermic men.
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