The association between renal stones and fasting: A systematic review
Keywords:renal colic, kidney stones, fasting, nephrolithiasis, Ramadan
Introduction: Fasting is a common cultural practice worldwide for both religious and dietary reasons. However, there is concern that fasting may be a risk factor for the development of renal stones. To date, there has not been a systematic assessment of the literature regarding the association between renal stones and fasting.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines of three databases: Medline-OVID, EMBASE, and CINAHL. All screening and extraction was completed in parallel with two independent reviewers.
Results: Of the 1501 database citations, a total of 10 observational studies with a total of 9906 participants were included. Nine of the studies were conducted in the context of Islamic fasting during Ramadan, with the majority (7/9) finding that renal colic incidence was unaffected by the month of fasting. In contrast, two studies noted an increased incidence among fasting populations. Two other studies noted that urine metabolites and density were altered with fasting but did not translate into clinical outcomes.
Conclusions: Based on the available evidence, it is unlikely that fasting significantly increases the risk of renal stones. Physicians should counsel higher-risk patients on safe fasting practices.
How to Cite
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.