Composite health behaviour classifier as the basis for targeted interventions and global comparisons in men’s health
Introduction: Lifestyle-related diseases are the leading cause of death among North American men. We evaluated health behaviours and their predictors that contribute to morbidity and mortality among Canadian men as a means to making recommendations for targeted interventions.
Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of Canadian men drawn from 5362 visitors to our online survey page was conducted. The current study sample of 2000 men (inclusion: male and >18 years; exclusion: incomplete surveys) were stratified to the 2016 Canadian census. The primary outcome was the number of unhealthy men classified using our Canadian Composite Classification of Health Behaviour (CCCHB) score. Secondary outcomes included the number of men with unhealthy exercise, diet, smoking, sleep, and alcohol intake, as well as socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with unhealthy behaviours to be used for targeting future interventions.
Results: Only 118/2000 (5.9%) men demonstrated 5/5 healthy behaviours, and 829 (41.5%) had 3/5 unhealthy behaviours; 391 (19.6%) men currently smoked, 773 (38.7%) demonstrated alcohol overuse, 1077 (53.9%) did not get optimal sleep (< 7 or >9 hours per night), 977 (48.9%) failed to exercise >150 minutes/week, and 1235 (61.8%) had an unhealthy diet. Multivariate analysis indicated that men with high school education were at increased risk of unhealthy behaviours (odds ratio [OR] 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.18; p=0.005), as were men living with relatives (OR 2.10; 95% CI1.04–4.26; p=0.039), or with their partner and children (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02–1.76; p=0.034).
Conclusions: An overwhelming 41.5% of Canadian men had 3/5 unhealthy behaviours, affirming the need for targeted lifestyle interventions. Significant health inequities within vulnerable sub-groups of Canadian men were identified and may guide the content and delivery of future interventions.
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