Use of radiotherapy for bladder cancer: A population-based study of evolving referral and practice patterns
Introduction: Definitive treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer includes either cystectomy or radiotherapy (RT). We describe use of RT and radiation oncology (RO) referral patterns in the contemporary era.
Methods: The Ontario Cancer Registry and linked records of treatment were used to identify all patients who received cystectomy or RT for bladder cancer from 1994–2013. Physician billing records were linked to identify RO consultation before radical treatment. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine patient factors and physician-level variation in referral to RO and use of RT.
Results: A total of 7461 patients underwent cystectomy or RT for bladder cancer from 1994–2013; 5574 (75%) had cystectomy and 1887 (25%) had RT. Use of RT decreased from 43% (126/289) in 1994 to 23% (112/478) in 2008 and remained stable from 2009– 2013 (23%, 507/2202). RO referral rate among all cases decreased from 46% (134/289) in 1994 to 30% (143/478) in 2008; however, the rates began to rise in the contemporary era from 31% (137/442) in 2009 to 37% (165/448) in 2013 (p=0.03). Patient factors associated with use of RT include older age, greater comorbidity, and geographic location. Surgeon-level factors associated with greater preoperative referral to RO include higher surgeon case volume and practicing in a teaching hospital.
Conclusions: One-quarter of patients treated with curative intent therapy for bladder cancer receive RT. While referral rates to RO are increasing, future data will identify the extent to which this has altered practice. Collaborative efforts promoting multidisciplinary care and RO consultation before radical treatment are warranted.
You, the Author(s), assign your copyright in and to the Article to the Canadian Urological Association. This means that you may not, without the prior written permission of the CUA:
- Post the Article on any Web site
- Translate or authorize a translation of the Article
- Copy or otherwise reproduce the Article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so
- Copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the Article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.
The CUA encourages use for non-commercial educational purposes and will not unreasonably deny any such permission request.
You retain your moral rights in and to the Article. This means that the CUA may not assert its copyright in such a way that would negatively reflect on your reputation or your right to be associated with the Article.
The CUA also requires you to warrant the following:
- That you are the Author(s) and sole owner(s), that the Article is original and unpublished and that you have not previously assigned copyright or granted a licence to any other third party;
- That all individuals who have made a substantive contribution to the article are acknowledged;
- That the Article does not infringe any proprietary right of any third party and that you have received the permissions necessary to include the work of others in the Article; and
- That the Article does not libel or violate the privacy rights of any third party.