Prospective evaluation of kidney displacement during supine mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Incidence, significance, and analysis of predictive factors
Introduction: Kidney displacement may alter the quality of renal puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). The aim of this study was to identify the rate of kidney displacement and parameters associated with kidney displacement in patients who underwent supine mini-PCNL.
Methods: Data of 98 consecutive patients who underwent mini- PCNL was collected prospectively. The patients were grouped as displacement-positive vs. -negative. The parameters collected were age, gender, body mass index, side of the kidney, punctured calyx, fluoroscopy time to successful puncture and tract dilation, stonefree and complication rates, stone diameter, length of the renal artery, and quantity of peri-renal and abdominal fat. Groups were compared for the above listed parameters and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with kidney displacement.
Results: There were 34 and 64 patients in the displacement-positive and -negative groups, respectively. Groups were similar for stonefree and complication rates. Fluoroscopy time to puncture and tract dilation were longer in the displacement-positive group. Groups were different for renal artery length and peri-renal fat measurements. In multivariate analysis, lower pole puncture, renal artery length, and peri-renal fat measurement were found to be independent predictors of kidney displacement.
Conclusions: Kidney displacement does not alter the success and complication rates, but is associated with longer fluoroscopy times during supine PCNL. In the current study, parameters in preoperative non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) associated with kidney displacement were identified. We recommend surgeons evaluate and take into account these parameters during preoperative planning to establish better outcomes and diminish fluoroscopy times.
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