Cryptorchidism: A practical review for all community healthcare providers
AbstractCryptorchidism is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the male genitalia, occurring in 1% of boys by the age of one year. Even though the etiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial, management has evolved with the clear recognition that hormonal treatment is not effective and surgery between 6–18 months of age leads to better testicular outcomes. Diagnostic laparoscopy is considered the standard approach for management of non-palpable testes, and can be combined with one or two-stage orchidopexy, with up to 80–90% success rates. This review discusses the natural history of retractile testicles, indications for hormonal treatment and orchidectomy, ultrasound’s role as a diagnostic tool, risks of infertility and testicular cancer, and surgical techniques for inguinal and intra-abdominal testes.
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