Isolated renal hydatid disease in a non-endemic country: a single centre experience
Objective: Isolated renal hydatid disease (HD) is rare in nonendemic countries. Clinical and radiological suspicion warrants appropriate serological tests, preoperative treatment and intra-operative precautions. We present a tertiary care centre experience of isolated renal HD in a non-endemic country.
Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with HD treated in the past 20 years. We identified patients with the definitive diagnosis of isolated renal HD and described their management.
Results: Of the 119 cases with HD, 6 were found to have isolated renal involvement (5%). Their median age was 46.5 (28-70) years. Five patients presented with flank pain and 1 had an incidentally discovered renal mass. Radiologic investigations raised the suspicionof possible HD in 4 cases, while 2 cases were diagnosed as renal tumours. Computerized tomography showed complex renal cyst in 4, solid renal mass with heterogonous enhancement in 2 and calcification in 5. Eosinophilia and indirect hemagglutinationtest (IHA) were positive in 3 of the 4 suspected cases. Three cases were treated as renal tumours, while 3 were managed as HD. Four cases had total nephrectomy and 2 had partial nephrectomy. Histopathology revealed that all cases had renal HD. Patients were followed for a median of 7.3 (0.4-11.3) years with no evidence of recurrence.
Conclusions: Isolated renal HD is a challenging preoperative diagnosis in non-endemic countries. The definitive diagnosis is only possible by histopathology. Retrospectively, HD mimicked renal tumours in half the cases and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal space occupying lesions.
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