Impact of oral hypoglycemic agents on mortality among diabetic patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A population-based analysis

Patrick O. Richard, Ardalan E. Ahmad, Shaheena Bashir, Alexandre Zlotta, Bimal Bhindi, Ricardo Leao, Madhur Nayan, Aza Mohammed, Neil E. Fleshner, Girish S. Kulkarni

Abstract


Introduction: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for 75‒85% of all urothelial bladder cancers (UBC). Many UBC patients are also afflicted by diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been postulated that several oral hypoglycemic agents could impact disease-specific survival (DSS), but the data are sparse among NMIBC patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate the impact of metformin on DSS and overall survival (OS) in NMIBC patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study that used linked administrative databases to identify diabetic patients ≥66 years who were subsequently diagnosed with NMIBC in Ontario between 1992 and 2012. Cumulative use of metformin and other hypoglycemic agent were calculated before and after NMIBC diagnosis. DSS and OS were estimated using multivariable competing risk and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively.

Results: A total of 1742 subjects were included in the study. After a median followup of 5.2 years, 1122 (64%) had died, including 247 (15%) deaths as a result of UBC. On multivariable analysis, cumulative duration of metformin use after NMIBC diagnosis did not appear to impact DSS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92‒1.2), whereas glyburide use appeared to have a detrimental effect (HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.02‒1.3). None of the other hypoglycemic agents had an impact on OS.

Conclusions: In this large, population-based study, we have provided further evidence that metformin use does not significantly impact DSS among diabetic patients diagnosed with NMIBC. However, our findings demonstrate that glyburide use inversely affects DSS. The detrimental effect of glyburide on DSS will require further validation.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.4870