Recommendations for followup of stage I and II seminoma: The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre approach

Hester Lieng, Padraig Warde, Philippe Bedard, Robert J. Hamilton, Aaron R. Hansen, Michael A. S. Jewett, Martin O'Malley, Joan Sweet, Peter Chung

Abstract


Testicular seminoma most commonly affects young men and is associated with favourable prognosis. Various followup schedules and imaging protocols for testicular seminoma have been described without overall consensus. We reviewed the literature together with our experience at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and present an evidence-based followup approach for patients with stage I and II seminoma.

Full Text:

EPUB (DRAFT)

References


Ghazarian AA, Trabert B, Devesa SS, et al. Recent trends in the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in the United States. Andrology 2015;3: 13-18.

Vallis KA, Howard GC, Duncan W, et al. Radiotherapy for stages I and II testicular seminoma: results and morbidity in 238 patients. British Journal of Radiology 1995;68: 400-05.

Chung PW, Gospodarowicz MK, Panzarella T, et al. Stage II testicular seminoma: patterns of recurrence and outcome of treatment. European Urology 2004;45: 754-60.

Classen J, Schmidberger H, Meisner C, et al. Radiotherapy for stages IIA/B testicular seminoma: final report of a prospective multicenter clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21: 1101-06.

Paly JJ, Lin CC, Gray PJ, et al. Management and outcomes of clinical stage IIA/B seminoma: Results from the National Cancer Data Base 1998-2012. Pract Radiat Oncol 2016;6: e249-58.

Glaser SM, Vargo JA, Balasubramani GK, et al. Surveillance and Radiation Therapy for Stage I Seminoma--Have We Learned From the Evidence? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016;94: 75-84.

Giannatempo P, Greco T, Mariani L, et al. Radiotherapy or chemotherapy for clinical stage IIA and IIB seminoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of patient outcomes. Annals of Oncology 2015;26: 657-68.

Hallemeier CL, Pisansky TM, Davis BJ, et al. Long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for stage II testicular seminoma--the Mayo Clinic experience. Urologic Oncology 2013;31: 1832-38.

Mortensen MS, Lauritsen J, Gundgaard MG, et al. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program. European Urology 2014;66: 1172-78.

Cathomas R, Helbling D, Stenner F, et al. Interdisciplinary evidence-based recommendations for the follow-up of testicular cancer patients: a joint effort. Swiss Med Wkly 2010;140: 356-69.

van As NJ, Gilbert DC, Money-Kyrle J, et al. Evidence-based pragmatic guidelines for the follow-up of testicular cancer: optimising the detection of relapse. British Journal of Cancer 2008;98: 1894-1902.

Motzer RJ, Jonasch E, Agarwal N, et al. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology; testicular cancer. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/testicular.pdf. Accessed 31 October, 2016.

Albers P, Albrecht W, Algaba F, et al. Guidelines on testicular cancer. Available from URL: www.uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/11-Testicular-Canccer_LR1.pdf. Accessed 31 October, 2016.

Oldenburg J, Fossa SD, Nuver J, et al. Testicular seminoma and non-seminoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology 2013;24 Suppl 6: vi125-132.

Tyldesley S, Voduc D, McKenzie M, et al. Surveillance of stage I testicular seminoma: British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience 1992 to 2002. Urology 2006;67: 594-98.

Kollmannsberger C, Tandstad T, Bedard PL, et al. Patterns of relapse in patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer managed with active surveillance. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2015;33: 51-57.

Cummins S, Yau T, Huddart R, et al. Surveillance in stage I seminoma patients: a long-term assessment. European Urology 2010;57: 673-78.

Warde P, Specht L, Horwich A, et al. Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I seminoma managed by surveillance: a pooled analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20: 4448-52.

Tandstad T, Stahl O, Dahl O, et al. Treatment of stage I seminoma, with one course of adjuvant carboplatin or surveillance, risk-adapted recommendations implementing patient autonomy: a report from the Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Group (SWENOTECA). Annals of Oncology 2016;27: 1299-1304.

Dieckmann KP, Dralle-Filiz I, Matthies C, et al. Testicular seminoma clinical stage 1: treatment outcome on a routine care level. Journal of Cancer Research & Clinical Oncology 2016;142: 1599-1607.

Jones G, Arthurs B, Kaya H, et al. Overall survival analysis of adjuvant radiation versus observation in stage I testicular seminoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) analysis. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 2013;36: 500-04.

Choo R, Thomas G, Woo T, et al. Long-term outcome of postorchiectomy surveillance for Stage I testicular seminoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61: 736-40.

Hosni A, Warde P, Jewett M, et al. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Late Relapse in Stage I Testicular Seminoma. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists) 2016;28: 648-54.

Andreassen KE, Grotmol T, Cvancarova MS, et al. Risk of metachronous contralateral testicular germ cell tumors: a population-based study of 7,102 Norwegian patients (1953-2007). Int J Cancer 2011;129: 2867-74.

Fossa SD, Chen J, Schonfeld SJ, et al. Risk of contralateral testicular cancer: a population-based study of 29,515 U.S. men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2005;97: 1056-66.

Sprauten M, Brydoy M, Haugnes HS, et al. Longitudinal serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in a population-based sample of long-term testicular cancer survivors. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2014;32: 571-78.

Morales A, Bebb RA, Manjoo P, et al. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency syndrome in men: clinical practice guideline. CMAJ 2015;187: 1369-77.

Andersen BL, DeRubeis RJ, Berman BS, et al. Screening, assessment, and care of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adults with cancer: an American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline adaptation. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2014;32: 1605-19.

Howell D, Keshavarz H, Esplen MJ, et al. A Pan Canadian Practice Guideline: Screening, Assessment and Care of Psychosocial Distress, Depression, and Anxiety in Adults with Cancer, Toronto: Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology July 2015.

Dahl AA, Haaland CF, Mykletun A, et al. Study of anxiety disorder and depression in long-term survivors of testicular cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23: 2389-95.

Beard CJ, Travis LB, Chen MH, et al. Outcomes in stage I testicular seminoma: a population-based study of 9193 patients. Cancer 2013;119: 2771-77.

Tandstad T, Smaaland R, Solberg A, et al. Management of seminomatous testicular cancer: a binational prospective population-based study from the Swedish norwegian testicular cancer study group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011;29: 719-25.

Lin EC. Radiation risk from medical imaging. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2010;85: 1142-46.

Mettler FA, Jr., Huda W, Yoshizumi TT, et al. Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: a catalog. Radiology 2008;248: 254-63.

National Research Council Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. Health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation: BEIR VII, Phase 2. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

Murphy KP, Crush L, O'Neill SB, et al. Feasibility of low-dose CT with model-based iterative image reconstruction in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer. Eur J Radiol Open 2016;3: 38-45.

O'Malley ME, Chung P, Haider M, et al. Comparison of low dose with standard dose abdominal/pelvic multidetector CT in patients with stage 1 testicular cancer under surveillance. European Radiology 2010;20: 1624-30.

Martin JM, Panzarella T, Zwahlen DR, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for following stage 1 seminoma. Cancer 2007;109: 2248-56.

McPartlin A, Hosni A, Bedard PL, et al. Optimization of an imaging protocol for stage I seminoma surveillance based on variations in relapse location over time. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2016;34 Suppl 2S; abstr 475.

Cafferty FH, Gabe R, Huddart RA, et al. UK management practices in stage I seminoma and the Medical Research Council Trial of Imaging and Schedule in Seminoma Testis managed with surveillance. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists) 2012;24: 25-29.

Tolan S, Vesprini D, Jewett MA, et al. No role for routine chest radiography in stage I seminoma surveillance. European Urology 2010;57: 474-79.

Venkitaraman R, Johnson B, Huddart RA, et al. The utility of lactate dehydrogenase in the follow-up of testicular germ cell tumours. BJU Int 2007;100: 30-32.

Gilligan TD, Hayes DF, Seidenfeld J, et al. ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline on Uses of Serum Tumor Markers in Adult Males With Germ Cell Tumors. J Oncol Pract 2010;6: 199-202.

Vesprini D, Chung P, Tolan S, et al. Utility of serum tumor markers during surveillance for stage I seminoma. Cancer 2012;118: 5245-50.

Blanke CD, Delgalvis SC, Nichols GR. Late recurrence of seminoma. Southern Medical Journal 1997;90: 653-55.

Wood L, Kollmannsberger C, Jewett M, et al. Canadian consensus guidelines for the management of testicular germ cell cancer. Can Urol Assoc J 2010;4: e19-38.

Mead GM, Fossa SD, Oliver RT, et al. Randomized trials in 2466 patients with stage I seminoma: patterns of relapse and follow-up. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2011;103: 241-49.

Fischer S, Tandstad T, Wheater M, et al. Outcome of Men With Relapse After Adjuvant Carboplatin for Clinical Stage I Seminoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2017;35: 194-200.

Leung E, Warde P, Jewett M, et al. Treatment burden in stage I seminoma: a comparison of surveillance and adjuvant radiation therapy. BJU Int 2013;112: 1088-95.

Clasen J, Schmidberger H, Souchon R, et al. What is the value of routine follow-up in stage I seminoma after paraaortic radiotherapy?: an analysis of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group (GTCSG) in 675 prospectively followed patients. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 2009;185: 349-54.

Classen J, Schmidberger H, Meisner C, et al. Para-aortic irradiation for stage I testicular seminoma: results of a prospective study in 675 patients. A trial of the German testicular cancer study group (GTCSG). British Journal of Cancer 2004;90: 2305-11.

Hallemeier CL, Choo R, Davis BJ, et al. Excellent long-term disease control with modern radiotherapy techniques for stage I testicular seminoma--the Mayo Clinic experience. Urol Oncol 2014;32: 24 e21-26.

Logue JP, Harris MA, Livsey JE, et al. Short course para-aortic radiation for stage I seminoma of the testis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57: 1304-09.

Livsey JE, Taylor B, Mobarek N, et al. Patterns of relapse following radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis: implications for follow-up. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists) 2001;13: 296-300.

Fossa SD, Horwich A, Russell JM, et al. Optimal planning target volume for stage I testicular seminoma: A Medical Research Council randomized trial. Medical Research Council Testicular Tumor Working Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1999;17: 1146.

Oliver RT, Mead GM, Rustin GJ, et al. Randomized trial of carboplatin versus radiotherapy for stage I seminoma: mature results on relapse and contralateral testis cancer rates in MRC TE19/EORTC 30982 study (ISRCTN27163214). Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011;29: 957-62.

Chau C, Cathomas R, Wheater M, et al. Treatment outcome and patterns of relapse following adjuvant carboplatin for stage I testicular seminomatous germ-cell tumour: results from a 17-year UK experience. Annals of Oncology 2015;26: 1865-70.

Oliver RT, Mason MD, Mead GM, et al. Radiotherapy versus single-dose carboplatin in adjuvant treatment of stage I seminoma: a randomised trial. Lancet 2005;366: 293-300.

Dieckmann KP, Bruggeboes B, Pichlmeier U, et al. Adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I seminoma: is a single course of carboplatin sufficient? Urology 2000;55: 102-06.

Aparicio J, Germa JR, Garcia del Muro X, et al. Risk-adapted management for patients with clinical stage I seminoma: the Second Spanish Germ Cell Cancer Cooperative Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23: 8717-23.

Steiner H, Scheiber K, Berger AP, et al. Retrospective multicentre study of carboplatin monotherapy for clinical stage I seminoma. BJU Int 2011;107: 1074-79.

Feldman DR, Bosl GJ. Treatment of stage I seminoma: is it time to change your practice? J Hematol Oncol 2008;1: 22.

Zagars GK, Pollack A. Radiotherapy for stage II testicular seminoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;51: 643-49.

Patterson H, Norman AR, Mitra SS, et al. Combination carboplatin and radiotherapy in the management of stage II testicular seminoma: comparison with radiotherapy treatment alone. Radiotherapy & Oncology 2001;59: 5-11.

Bayens YC, Helle PA, Van Putten WL, et al. Orchidectomy followed by radiotherapy in 176 stage I and II testicular seminoma patients: benefits of a 10-year follow-up study. Radiotherapy & Oncology 1992;25: 97-102.

Gholam D, Fizazi K, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, et al. Advanced seminoma--treatment results and prognostic factors for survival after first-line, cisplatin-based chemotherapy and for patients with recurrent disease: a single-institution experience in 145 patients. Cancer 2003;98: 745-52.

Fossa SD, Oliver RT, Stenning SP, et al. Prognostic factors for patients with advanced seminoma treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. European Journal of Cancer 1997;33: 1380-87.

Fossa SD, Borge L, Aass N, et al. The treatment of advanced metastatic seminoma: experience in 55 cases. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1987;5: 1071-77.

Puc HS, Heelan R, Mazumdar M, et al. Management of residual mass in advanced seminoma: results and recommendations from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1996;14: 454-60.

Horwich A, Paluchowska B, Norman A, et al. Residual mass following chemotherapy of seminoma. Annals of Oncology 1997;8: 37-40.

De Santis M, Becherer A, Bokemeyer C, et al. 2-18fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is a reliable predictor for viable tumor in postchemotherapy seminoma: an update of the prospective multicentric SEMPET trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22: 1034-39.

Herr HW, Sheinfeld J, Puc HS, et al. Surgery for a post-chemotherapy residual mass in seminoma. Journal of Urology 1997;157: 860-62.

Warde P, Huddart R, Bolton D, et al. Management of localized seminoma, stage I-II: SIU/ICUD Consensus Meeting on Germ Cell Tumors (GCT), Shanghai 2009. Urology 2011;78: S435-43.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.4531
 |  Add comment