Can a supervised algorithmic assessment of men for prostate cancer improve the quality of care? A retrospective evaluation of a prostate assessment pathway in Saskatchewan

Bonnie Liu, Kunal Jana, Gary Groot

Abstract


Introduction: The Saskatoon Prostate Assessment Pathway (SPAP) was developed in 2013 in part to decrease the wait times between physician referral and biopsy for patients with suspected prostate cancer. Using an algorithm carefully designed to optimize appropriate prostate biopsy rates, physicians can directly refer patients for biopsy through the SPAP without seeing a urologist. All other patients are referred to the Saskatoon Urology Associates (SUA). The present study evaluates the performance of the algorithm.

Methods: 971 patients seen at the SUA and 302 patients seen through the SPAP were identified. Information on age, biopsy status and outcome, risk stratification, and time between referral and biopsy was collected. Biopsy wait time data was analyzed using gamma distribution. Association between referral method and biopsy rate, and between referral method and risk stratification, was analyzed using Z-test.

Results: The expected wait time from referral to biopsy for patients seen through SUA was 2.63 times longer than those seen through SPAP (34 vs. 91 days). The biopsy rate of patients seen in the SPAP
was significantly higher than those by SUA (88% vs. 69%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14–0.26; p<0.00001). There was no significant difference in positive biopsy rates for patients seen through the SPAP vs. SUA (81% vs. 74%, 95% CI -0.011,0.14; p=0.095), for detection of low-risk cancer, (12% vs. 10%, 95% CI -0.034,0.080; p=0.44), or for clinically relevant cancer, i.e., intermediate- and high-risk cancer, for SPAP vs. SUA (56.54% vs. 56.68%, 95% CI -0.091,0.089; p=0.49).

Conclusions: The algorithm used in the SPAP is effective in decreasing wait time to prostate biopsy and has the same cancer/pre-cancer detection rate, but at the cost of a higher biopsy rate. Both referral
mechanisms result in few low-risk cancer detection biopsies, finding primarily cases of high- or intermediate-risk cancer.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.4237